Indoor versus outdoor cats


Our feline friends are captivating creatures that can bring joy and companionship into our lives. Whether you’re a experienced cat parent or considering to adopt for the first time, it’s important to think about the kind of cat environment that you feel will be best for your cat’s health and welfare. One of the biggest decisions you’ll need to make is whether to keep your cat indoors-only or allow them to roam outside. As you’ll see, there are pros and cons to each approach, and finding the right balance can ensure that your cat is healthy, happy, and safe. In this discussion, we’ll explore the benefits and drawbacks of having an indoors-only cat versus an indoor-outdoor cat, as well as share tips on how to make sure your feline friend thrives in their environment.


The topic of whether to have an indoor-only or an indoor-outdoor cat can be divisive among cat owners because it’s a decision that is influenced by personal values, lifestyle, and cultural factors. Some cat owners believe that cats should be allowed to roam freely outside because it allows them to express natural behaviors such as hunting and exploring, while others believe that cats should be kept indoors to protect them from dangers such as traffic accidents and predators. Although personal values and lifestyle heavily determine this divide, there are some very real differences across cultures.

  • In the US and Canada*, about 81% of domestic cats are kept solely indoors.
  • In Denmark*, only 17% of cats are strictly indoor pets.
  • In Britain*, 74 percent of cat parents let their felines roam outside.
  • In Turkiye, it’s common for feral cats to walk freely in and out of cafes, restaurants and markets – so much so that they produced a documentary on the subject (see video below).
  • Poland has recently called outdoor cats an “invasive alien species.”

* National Library of Medicine (NIH): Indoors or Outdoors? An International Exploration of Owner Demographics and Decision Making Associated with Lifestyle of Pet Cats

It’s clear that cultural norms for this phenomenon varies widely across cultures. Outdoor cat culture began to change in the 1980s and ’90s as more North Americans began keeping their cats indoors for a number of reasons:

  • Conservationists warned of declining bird populations.
  • Veterinarians cautioned that an outdoor cat were more disposed to diseases, parasites and infections.
  • Speeding automobiles.

All VERY valid reasons to keep your cat indoors. These rationales all make sense if you want to maximize your cat’s lifespan, especially within the confines of a city. Exposure to high levels of automobile traffic is THE most common reason to keep your kitty inside. Traffic concerns appeared so strong that an absence of traffic may be enough for some owners to change their attitude towards an indoor-outdoor lifestyle. If the decision is made to keep your cat indoors-only, is there an argument to be made that we’re depriving them of the benefits of outdoor activity?



  • Safety: Indoor cats are protected from dangers such as traffic accidents, predators, people and exposure to diseases.
  • Lifespan: Indoor cats typically live longer than outdoor cats due to the lower risk of accidents and illnesses.
  • Lower Maintenance: Indoor cats don’t require regular flea and tick treatments, and there’s no need to clean up after them if they go outside to use the bathroom.
  • Better for the Environment: Indoor cats don’t hunt wildlife, which can help preserve local ecosystems.
  • Bonding: Indoor cats tend to form closer bonds with their owners as they spend more time together.


  • Lack of Exercise: Indoor cats may not get enough exercise, which can lead to weight management issues and other health problems.
  • Boredom: Indoor cats may become bored and develop destructive behaviours if they don’t have enough mental stimulation.
  • Litter Box Odour: Indoor cats need to use a litter box, which can produce unpleasant odours if not cleaned regularly.
  • Lack of Fresh Air and Sunlight: Indoor cats may not get enough fresh air and sunlight, which can impact their overall health and well-being.
  • Indoor Environment Challenges: Indoor cats may develop behaviour issues due to being confined to a limited or confined spaces.



  • Exercise: Outdoor cats tend to be more active and get more exercise, which can promote better health.
  • Mental Stimulation: Outdoor cats have access to a wider variety of stimuli, such as new smells and sights, which can provide increased mental stimulation.
  • Natural Behaviour: Outdoor cats can engage in natural behaviors such as climbing trees and hunting, which improves their physical and mental health.
  • Independence: Outdoor cats have more independence and may require less attention from their owners.
  • Fresh Air and Sunlight: Outdoor cats have access to fresh air and sunlight, which can help promote good health.


  • Safety: Outdoor cats are exposed to various dangers such as traffic accidents, attacks from predators, and exposure to diseases. High automobile traffic areas is THE most cited reason to keep your kitty inside.
  • Cat-Haters: Ailurophobia (fear of cats) or just plain dislike can lead to undesirable outcomes.
  • Reduced Lifespan: Outdoor cats tend to have shorter lifespans than indoor cats due to the higher risk of accidents and illnesses.
  • Environmental Impact: Outdoor cats may have a negative impact on local ecosystems by hunting wildlife. (ie. bird populations).
  • Maintenance: Outdoor cats may require more maintenance, such as regular flea and tick treatments. Also, cleaning up after them if they toilet outside.
  • Behavioral Issues: Outdoor cats could develop behavioural issues such as aggression and territory marking.

It’s important to weigh these pros and cons when deciding if an indoor-outdoor cat is the best fit for you and your lifestyle. If you do decide to have an outdoor cat, it’s important to ensure that they are safe and healthy in that environment. This may involve taking measures such as providing regular veterinary care, making sure they are properly vaccinated and spayed or neutered, and providing a safe and stimulating outdoor environment.


  • Provide a safe outdoor environment: Make sure your outdoor space is secure and free from potential hazards such as toxic plants or sharp objects.
  • Provide regular veterinary care: Take your cat to the vet regularly for check-ups, vaccinations, and preventative care such as flea and tick treatments.
  • Spay or neuter your cat: This can help prevent certain health issues and reduce the risk of your cat wandering off in search of a mate.
  • Provide a stimulating indoor environment: Give your cat plenty of toys, scratching posts, and cozy spots to relax in when they’re indoors.
  • Offer a balanced diet: Feed your cat a nutritious diet that meets their specific needs, and make sure they have access to fresh water at all times.
  • Keep up with litter box maintenance: Even if your cat goes outside to use the bathroom, provide a clean litter box for them to use indoors.


Is it safe to let my cat go outside? What steps can I take to make this transition easier?

This is dependent on various factors as mentioned earlier, including the environment you inhabit, your individual cat’s personality and behavior. If you do choose to let your cat outside, here are 6 steps you can take to help keep them safe:

  • Ensure that your cat is up-to-date on vaccinations.
  • Provide protection against fleas, ticks and heartworm.
  • Spay / neuter to keep the pet population in check.
  • Provide a safe and secure outdoor environment.
  • Use a collar with ID tags.
  • Have your cat microchipped in case they get lost.

How can I ensure my indoor cat gets enough exercise and mental stimulation?

Ensuring that your indoor cat gets enough exercise and mental stimulation is VERY important for their physical and mental well-being. 7 Tips to Keep Your Indoor Cat Active and Engaged:

  • Plenty of Toys: Interactive toys such as feather wands, puzzle feeders, and balls can provide mental stimulation and encourage exercise.
  • Vertical Spaces: Providing them with vertical spaces such as cat trees or shelves can help them exercise and feel more comfortable in their environment.
  • Toys Rotation: To prevent your cat from becoming bored with their toys, rotate them regularly and introduce new toys periodically.
  • Engage in Play: Regular playtime with your cat can help them get exercise and engage in natural behaviors such as stalking and pouncing.
  • Use a Scratching Post: Scratching is a natural behavior for cats and providing them with a designated scratching post can help keep them active and mentally stimulated.
  • Window Access: Cats love to watch birds and other wildlife outside, so providing them with access to a window or a perch near a window can provide mental stimulation.
  • A Second Companion: Cats are social animals and may benefit from having another feline – or even canine – companion to play and interact with.

How can I keep my outdoor cat safe from predators and traffic accidents?

7 Tips to Help Reduce Outdoor Risks:

  • Keep your cat indoors during peak predator hours – many predators such as coyotes and foxes are most active at dawn and dusk, so keeping your cat indoors during these times can help reduce the risk of attacks.
  • Provide a secure outdoor environment – if you have a yard, consider creating a secure outdoor space for your cat using fencing or netting. This can help keep them safe from predators and reduce the risk of them wandering into traffic.
  • Use reflective collars or tags – adding reflective collars or tags to your cat can help make them more visible to drivers, especially at night.
  • Spay or neuter your cat – intact cats are more likely to wander and be involved in traffic accidents or encounter predators.
  • Supervise your cat outside – supervising your cat while they are outside can help you monitor their behavior and intervene if necessary to keep them safe.
  • Provide a safe retreat – if your cat spends time outside, provide a safe retreat for them to escape to if they encounter a predator or feel threatened.
  • Consider microchipping – microchipping can help you locate them if they become lost or injured

Should I provide a litter box for my indoor-outdoor cat, even if they go outside to use the bathroom?

Providing a litter box for your indoor-outdoor cat is a good idea, even if they go outside to use the bathroom. Here are 5 reasons why:

  • Inclement Weather: Your cat may not want to go outside in extreme weather conditions such as heavy rain, snow, or extreme heat, and having a litter box available provides a convenient option for them.
  • Health Issues: If your cat has a health issue or is recovering from surgery, they may need to stay inside for an extended period of time, and having a litter box available will be necessary.
  • Indoor Access: Providing a litter box for your indoor-outdoor cat can ensure that they have access to a litter box even when they are inside.
  • Behavioral Issues: Some cats may develop behavioral issues such as anxiety or aggression that make it difficult for them to go outside to use the bathroom. In these cases, having a litter box available can be beneficial.
  • Multiple Cats: If you have multiple cats, having multiple litter boxes is recommended, even if some of them are indoor-outdoor cats. This will help prevent territorial issues and ensure that each cat has access to a litter box when they need it.

How do I transition my indoor cat to an outdoor cat, or vice versa?

Transitioning your cat from an indoor cat to an outdoor cat – and vice versa – should be done gradually and with careful consideration for your cat’s safety and well-being. Here are some tips for making the transition: Indoors-Only to Indoor-Outdoor:

  • Supervised Outdoor Time: Start with supervised outdoor time only. This can help your cat get used to the outdoors in a controlled environment.
  • Safe Outdoor Environment: Ensure that your outdoor space is secure and free from hazards such as predators, busy roads, or toxic plants.
  • Use a Leash or Harness: Consider using a leash or harness to keep them safe and under your control.

Indoor-Outdoor to Indoors-Only:

  • Provide Mental Stimulation: Provide plenty of mental stimulation through play, toys, and scratching posts.
  • Use Litter Boxes: Ensure that you provide litter boxes for them to use.
  • Monitor Behaviour: Monitor their behavior closely to ensure that they are adapting well to the change. If you notice any problems, adjust your approach accordingly.

Every cat is unique, and some cats may not be suited for an indoor or outdoor lifestyle. Always prioritize your cat’s safety and well-being when making any changes to their living environment.


Deciding whether to have an indoors-only or an indoor-outdoor cat is a personal decision that depends on your lifestyle, preferences, and the needs of your furry friend. Both options have their pros and cons, and it’s important to weigh them carefully before making a decision. Regardless of which option you choose, it’s essential to provide your cat with a safe, stimulating, and healthy environment that promotes their well-being. With the right care and attention, your feline companion can lead a happy and fulfilling life by your side.